For other uses, see, Vacant wall in the Louvre's Salon Carré after the painting was stolen in 1911. En quelques minutes il s'empare du tableau, le dissimule sous sa blouse d'employé et rentre chez lui, dans le Xe arrondissemen… The painting was presented to the media in 2012 by the Mona Lisa Foundation. Si la Joconde a été peinte en Italie entre 1503 et 1506, elle quittera son pays d'origine avec son créateur pour suivre François Ier, de passage dans le pays en raison des guerres d'Italie. [140], A version of the Mona Lisa known as the Isleworth Mona Lisa was first bought by an English nobleman in 1778 and was rediscovered in 1913 by Hugh Blaker, an art connoisseur. Subsequently, on 21 April 1974, while the painting was on display at the Tokyo National Museum, a woman sprayed it with red paint as a protest against that museum's failure to provide access for disabled people. 1906. Domaine Dessin: Description Ready-made rectifié. C’est la lumière qui définit les volumes, les contours sont estompés, la peinture est recouverte de glacis colorés qui vitrifient le tableau. [6] The painting's novel qualities include the subject's enigmatic expression,[7] the monumentality of the composition, the subtle modelling of forms, and the atmospheric illusionism. Ce tableau, réalisé au début du XVIe siècle, est le portrait d'une jeune Florentine. [63], At some point, the Mona Lisa was removed from its original frame. [89] A new queuing system introduced in 2019 reduces the amount of time museum visitors have to wait in line to see the painting. [81] After having kept the Mona Lisa in his apartment for two years, Peruggia grew impatient and was caught when he attempted to sell it to Giovanni Poggi, director of the Uffizi Gallery in Florence. L'histoire de La Joconde demeure obscure : ni l'identité du modèle, ni la commande du portrait, ni le temps pendant lequel Léonard y travailla, voire le conserva, ni encore les circonstances de son entrée dans la collection royale française ne sont des faits clairement établis. [102] Since 2005 the painting has been illuminated by an LED lamp, and in 2013 a new 20 watt LED lamp was installed, specially designed for this painting. Pourquoi La Joconde a-t-elle une renommée mondiale aussi exceptionnelle, exprimant la peinture en général et l'idéal féminin en particulier ? Before that discovery, scholars had developed several alternative views as to the subject of the painting. jours par Celette La Joconde Suivre cette page La Joconde La Joconde Artiste Léonard de Vinci Date Entre 1503 et 1506 Type Huile sur panneau de bois de peuplier Dimensions (H × L) 77 × 53 cm Localisation Musée du Louvre, Paris Propriétaire Propriété de l'État français, affecté à la collection du Département des peintures du Louvre. [99][100], The picture is kept under strict, climate-controlled conditions in its bulletproof glass case. Léonard de Vinci peint le portrait de Mona Lisa ou La Joconde au début du XVIe siècle (entre 1503 et 1506 ou une dizaine d'année plus tard selon les historiens). Rennes ; musée des beaux-arts. [80] He carried out the theft by entering the building during regular hours, hiding in a broom closet, and walking out with the painting hidden under his coat after the museum had closed. In 1970, the beech crosspieces were switched to maple after it was found that the beechwood had been infested with insects. Because of the way the human eye processes visual information, it is less suited to pick up shadows directly; however, peripheral vision can pick up shadows well. Le 12 décembre 1913 le tableau La Joconde de Léonard de Vinci, subtilisé au musée du Louvre deux ans auparavant, refait surface à Florence en … [119] The French urban artist known pseudonymously as Invader has created versions of the Mona Lisa on city walls in Paris and Tokyo using a mosaic style. Référence. La Joconde, de Léonard de Vinci est un tableau conservé au Louvre, peint sur panneau de bois de 77 centimètres de hauteur sur 53 centimètres de largeur, est le portrait de Mona ( = Madonna) Lisa, probablement femme de Francesco del Giocondo (1465-1528) citoyen de Florence.Léonard de Vinci y travailla quatre années de suite, vers l'an 1500. [114][115], The avant-garde art world has made note of the Mona Lisa's undeniable popularity. Nom de la base. [18] Alessandro Vezzosi believes that the painting is characteristic of Leonardo's style in the final years of his life, post-1513. The edges of the painting have been trimmed at least once in its history to fit the picture into various frames, but no part of the original paint layer has been trimmed. Ce portrait de Mona Lisa, épouse de Francesco del Giocondo, est devenu célèbre lorsqu'il fut volé en 1911 par un menuisier italien. Acquisition Dépôt de Siège national du Parti communiste français. To compensate for fluctuations in relative humidity, the case is supplemented with a bed of silica gel treated to provide 55% relative humidity. La Joconde Nue, un dessin conservé au musée Condé de Chantilly, a été présenté par certains comme un double de La Joconde, de Leonard de Vinci, mais rien ne le confirme. "[109], Early commentators such as Vasari and André Félibien praised the picture for its realism, but by the Victorian era, writers began to regard the Mona Lisa as imbued with a sense of mystery and romance. [40], Research in 2008 by a geomorphology professor at Urbino University and an artist-photographer revealed likenesses of Mona Lisa's landscapes to some views in the Montefeltro region in the Italian provinces of Pesaro and Urbino, and Rimini. ", "Second Mona Lisa Unveiled for First Time in 40 Years", "The Isleworth Mona Lisa: A second Leonardo masterpiece? And she's almost drowned in a sprinkler malfunction", "The Louvre, the most visited museum in the world (01.15)", "Culture – Could France sell the Mona Lisa to pay off its debts? ", "Hidden portrait 'found under Mona Lisa', says French scientist", "Secret Portrait Hidden Under Mona Lisa, Claims French Scientist", "New Study Reveals Potentially Groundbreaking Drawing Hidden Beneath 'Mona Lisa, "Why Leonardo da Vinci's brilliance endures, 500 years after his death", "Biographical index of collectors of pastels", "Mona Lisa fans decry brief encounter with their idol in Paris", "Leonardo da Vinci's Unexamined Life as a Painter", "Louvre exhibit has most da Vinci paintings ever assembled", "Philadelphia Museum of Art - Collections Object : Tea Time (Woman with a Teaspoon)", "Mona Lisa: Who is Hidden Behind the Woman with the Mustache? Not all images are in colour, especially for the archaeological collections. [63], The first and most extensive recorded cleaning, revarnishing, and touch-up of the Mona Lisa was an 1809 wash and revarnishing undertaken by Jean-Marie Hooghstoel, who was responsible for restoration of paintings for the galleries of the Musée Napoléon. Propriété de la commune, legs, Rennes, musée des Beaux-Arts. [citation needed], The Mona Lisa has had many different decorative frames in its history, owing to changes in taste over the centuries. [78][79] The real culprit was Louvre employee Vincenzo Peruggia, who had helped construct the painting's glass case. [76] On 21 August 1911, the painting was stolen from the Louvre. A small number of the best known objects have a prose commentary. C’est à cet emplacement (au milieu sous le Véronèse) que le tableau fut volé. ", "In Louvre, New Room With View of 'Mona Lisa, "A Record Picasso and the Hype Price of Status Objects", "Another art anniversary: Mona Lisa comes to New York! [91][92][93] Cotte admits that his investigation was only carried out only in support of his hypotheses and should not be considered as definitive proof. In 1985, the spot was again treated with carbon tetrachloride as a preventive measure. "[132], Before the 1962–1963 tour, the painting was assessed for insurance at $100 million (equivalent to $660 million in 2019), making it, in practice, the most highly-valued painting in the world. [21] Several other women have been proposed as the subject of the painting. The Mona Lisa was not included because it is in such great demand among visitors to the museum; the painting remained on display in its gallery. [46] Other academics argue that, given the historical documentation, Leonardo would have painted the work from 1513. Mais il ne l’a certainement jamais eu en sa possession. Le peintre italien y travaille pendant quatre ans, de 1503 à 1506, et utilise le peuplier comme support. The title of the painting, though traditionally spelled Mona (as used by Vasari), is also commonly spelle… Mona in Italian is a polite form of address originating as ma donna – similar to Ma'am, Madam, or my lady in English. [33] The enigmatic woman is portrayed seated in what appears to be an open loggia with dark pillar bases on either side. About this we are now certain. Since then, bulletproof glass has been used to shield the painting from any further attacks. During the Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871), the painting was moved from the Louvre to the Brest Arsenal. Experts universally agree that it is based on Leonardo's portrait. [128] In New York, an estimated 1.7 million people queued "in order to cast a glance at the Mona Lisa for 20 seconds or so. A later restorer glued and lined the resulting socket and crack with cloth. Denizard also retouched the edges of the picture with varnish, to mask areas that had been covered initially by an older frame. "[111][112] Jean Metzinger's Le goûter (Tea Time) was exhibited at the 1911 Salon d'Automne and was sarcastically described as "la Joconde à la cuiller" (Mona Lisa with a spoon) by art critic Louis Vauxcelles on the front page of Gil Blas. Once part of King Francis I of France's collection, the Mona Lisa was among the first artworks to be exhibited in the Louvre, which became a national museum after the French Revolution. The Mona Lisa (/ˌmoʊnə ˈliːsə/; Italian: Monna Lisa [ˈmɔnna ˈliːza] or La Gioconda [la dʒoˈkonda]; French: La Joconde [la ʒɔkɔ̃d]) is a half-length portrait painting by Italian artist Leonardo da Vinci. "La Joconde est Retrouvée" ("Mona Lisa is Found"). In 1906, Louvre restorer Eugène Denizard performed watercolour retouches on areas of the paint layer disturbed by the crack in the panel. During World War II, it was again removed from the Louvre and taken first to the Château d'Amboise, then to the Loc-Dieu Abbey and Château de Chambord, then finally to the Ingres Museum in Montauban. This became madonna, and its contraction mona. Live on the French Minitel system from 1992, the database went online to the World Wide Web in 1995. Selon lui, le peintre aurait présenté au prélat napolitain, lors d'une visite au Château du Clos Lucé le 10 octobre 1517, une peinture représentant « une certaine dame florentine faite au naturel sur les instances de feu le Magnifique Julien de Médicis ». [130], In 2014, 9.3 million people visited the Louvre. Date acquisition. [54][57][56][69] The hypothetical first portrait, displaying prominent columns, would have been commissioned by Giocondo circa 1503, and left unfinished in Leonardo's pupil and assistant Salaì's possession until his death in 1524. That Leonardo painted such a work, and its date, were confirmed in 2005 when a scholar at Heidelberg University discovered a marginal note in a 1477 printing of a volume by ancient Roman philosopher Cicero. Behind her, a vast landscape recedes to icy mountains. La Joconde revisitée par l'artiste MADSAKI, proche de Takashi Murakami: Une œuvre iconique modernisée. [81] Decker published this account of the theft in 1932.[83]. Salon carré du Louvre en 1909. [28] Zöllner notes that the sitter's general position can be traced back to Flemish models and that "in particular the vertical slices of columns at both sides of the panel had precedents in Flemish portraiture. [86] On 2 August 2009, a Russian woman, distraught over being denied French citizenship, threw a ceramic teacup purchased at the Louvre; the vessel shattered against the glass enclosure. S'il y a bien une toile de maître incontournable au Louvre, c'est la Joconde, l'œuvre la plus célèbre en peinture de même que Les Esclaves de Michel-Ange peuvent l'être en sculpture. In recent decades, the painting has been temporarily moved to accommodate renovations to the Louvre on three occasions: between 1992 and 1995, from 2001 to 2005, and again in 2019. [14], The Mona Lisa bears a strong resemblance to many Renaissance depictions of the Virgin Mary, who was at that time seen as an ideal for womanhood. [13] In 1516, Leonardo was invited by King Francis I to work at the Clos Lucé near the Château d'Amboise; it is believed that he took the Mona Lisa with him and continued to work on it after he moved to France. Denizard was directed to clean the picture without solvent, and to lightly touch up several scratches to the painting with watercolour. Both were later exonerated. [18][71][72] At some point in the 16th century, a varnish was applied to the painting. Le groupe Joconde a été fondé en 1980 par Madame Boukhris Zeineb la doyenne de l’enseignement privé en Tunisie avec une longue expérience éducative de plus que 35 ans. It became the definitive example of the Renaissance portrait and perhaps for this reason is seen not just as the likeness of a real person, but also as the embodiment of an ideal. It was acquired by King Francis I of France and is now the property of the French Republic itself, on permanent display at the Louvre, Paris since 1797.[10]. [31], The painting was one of the first portraits to depict the sitter in front of an imaginary landscape, and Leonardo was one of the first painters to use aerial perspective. The current scholarly consensus on attribution is unclear. L'histoire du vol de La Joconde est en fait un coup de foudre entre un certain Vincenzo Peruggia et la mystérieuse Mona Lisa. The woman appears alive to an unusual extent, which Leonardo achieved by his method of not drawing outlines (sfumato). In the mid-18th century to early 19th century, two butterfly-shaped walnut braces were inserted into the back of the panel to a depth of about one third the thickness of the panel. [25][26][27] The consensus of art historians in the 21st century maintains the long-held traditional opinion that the painting depicts Lisa del Giocondo. Il est 7 heure du matin, nous sommes le lundi 21 août 1911. "[63] It has never been fully restored,[97] so the current condition is partly due to a variety of conservation treatments the painting has undergone. Technique Mine graphite sur héliogravure. The title of the painting, though traditionally spelled Mona (as used by Vasari),[12] is also commonly spelled in modern Italian as Monna Lisa (mona being a vulgarity in some Italian dialects), but this is rare in English. In 1859, Théophile Gautier wrote that the Mona Lisa was a "sphinx of beauty who smiles so mysteriously" and that "Beneath the form expressed one feels a thought that is vague, infinite, inexpressible. Because of the painting's overwhelming stature, Dadaists and Surrealists often produce modifications and caricatures. Zollner gives a date of c. 1504, most others say c. 1506, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (, Costanza d'Avalos, Duchess of Francavilla, National Museum of Art, Architecture and Design, "The Mona Lisa's Twin Painting Discovered", "The Theft That Made Mona Lisa a Masterpiece", "Mona Lisa – Portrait of Lisa Gherardini, wife of Francesco del Giocondo", "Mona Lisa – Heidelberger find clarifies identity", "Highest insurance valuation for a painting", "Mona Lisa – Heidelberg discovery confirms identity", "German experts crack the ID of 'Mona Lisa, "Riddle of Mona Lisa is finally solved: she was the mother of five", "Mona Lisa backdrop depicts Italian town of Bobbio, claims art historian", "Leonardo's Portrait of Mona Lisa del Giocondo", "Solved: Why Mona Lisa doesn't have eyebrows", "Lurking Beneath the 'Mona Lisa' May Be the Real One", "BBC NEWS – Entertainment – Mona Lisa smile secrets revealed", "Researchers identify landscape behind the Mona Lisa", "Da Vinci 'paralysis left Mona Lisa unfinished, "A Portrait of Leonardo da Vinci May Reveal Why He Never Finished the Mona Lisa", "Leonardo da Vinci never finished the Mona Lisa because he injured his arm while fainting, experts say", "Mona Lisa: A comparative evaluation of the different versions and copies", "Leonardo da Vinci's portrait of Mona Lisa de Giocondo", "The Theft That Made The 'Mona Lisa' A Masterpiece", "The French Burglar Who Pulled Off His Generation's Biggest Art Heist", "Top 25 Crimes of the Century: Stealing the Mona Lisa, 1911", "Review: The Lost Mona Lisa: The Extraordinary True Story of the Greatest Art Theft in History by RA Scotti", "100 Years Ago: The Mastermind Behind the Mona Lisa Heist | The Saturday Evening Post", "Russian tourist hurls mug at Mona Lisa in Louvre", "Will new Mona Lisa queuing system in restored Louvre gallery bring a smile back to visitors' faces? This flexible frame, which is used in addition to the decorative frame described below, exerts pressure on the panel to keep it from warping further. La Joconde. 1981, p 192 L'attribution du dessin à l'entourage de Léonard de Vinci se fonde à l'origine sur le témoignage d'Antonio de Beatis, secrétaire du cardinal Louis d'Aragon. ", "The 'Prado Mona Lisa' – The Mona Lisa Foundation", "Da Vinci's Mona Lisa Entering the Next Dimension", Tweened animated gif of Mona Lisa and Prado version, "Depth Perception and the History of Three-Dimensional Art: Who Produced the First Stereoscopic Images? The work involved cleaning with spirits, touch-up of colour, and revarnishing the painting. Toutes les oeuvresTout voir; Par musée (204 696) Musée Carnavalet, Histoire de Paris (42 888) Palais Galliera, musée de la Mode de la Ville de Paris (42 561) Petit Palais, musée des Beaux-arts de la Ville de Paris (18 155) Maison de Victor Hugo - Hauteville House (9 938) Musée d’Art moderne de Paris (4 641) Musée de la Libération de Paris - musée du Général Leclerc - musée Jean Moulin [63] In view of this, Vincent Delieuvin, curator of 16th-century Italian painting at the Louvre, states that the sketch and these other copies must have been inspired by another version,[64] while Zöllner states that the sketch may be after another Leonardo portrait of the same subject. When an object created after the 19th century has no image this is most often for copyright reasons. La Joconde (1503-1506). Originally just for objects from the fine arts and decorative arts, in 2004 Joconde was united with what had been separate databases for objects from archeology and ethnology. After some confusion as to whether the painting was being photographed somewhere, the Louvre was closed for a week for investigation. [147], Copy of Mona Lisa commonly attributed to Salaì, 16th-century copy at the Hermitage by unknown artist, This article is about the painting. Deux événements de la vie conjugale de Francesco del Giocondo et de Lisa Gherardini pourraient avoir suscité la réalisation de ce portrait : l'acquisition d'une … The soft blending creates an ambiguous mood "mainly in two features: the corners of the mouth, and the corners of the eyes". Pour assurer un meilleur déroulement des travaux de rénovation de la salle des Etats et pour préserver les conditions d’accueil et de visite, le musée du Louvre a décidé de déplacer exceptionnellement la Joconde dans la Galerie Médicis, située au 2e étage de l’aile Richelieu (salle 801) du 17 juillet jusqu’à la fin du chantier, début octobre 2019. Raphael's Young Woman with Unicorn, c. 1506, Raphael's Portrait of Baldassare Castiglione (c. 1514–15), Le rire (The Laugh) by Eugène Bataille, or Sapeck (1883), Jean Metzinger, 1911, Le goûter (Tea Time), oil on canvas, 75.9 x 70.2 cm, Philadelphia Museum of Art, Marguerite Agniel "As Mona Lisa" by Robert Henri, c. 1929, Today the Mona Lisa is considered the most famous painting in the world, but until the 20th century it was simply one among many highly regarded artworks. As a result, it was thought that the Mona Lisa had been trimmed. Salvador Dalí, famous for his surrealist work, painted Self portrait as Mona Lisa in 1954. Considered an archetypal masterpiece of the Italian Renaissance,[4][5] it has been described as "the best known, the most visited, the most written about, the most sung about, the most parodied work of art in the world". [96], The Mona Lisa has survived for more than 500 years, and an international commission convened in 1952 noted that "the picture is in a remarkable state of preservation. Statut juridique. Despite the treatments, the Mona Lisa has been well cared for throughout its history, and although the panel's warping caused the curators "some worry",[98] the 2004–05 conservation team was optimistic about the future of the work. For example, Leonardo probably painted his model faithfully since her beauty is not seen as being among the best, "even when measured by late quattrocento (15th century) or even twenty-first century standards. [77] The painting was first missed the next day by painter Louis Béroud. [124], The 1911 theft of the Mona Lisa and its subsequent return was reported worldwide, leading to a massive increase in public recognition of the painting. Léonard de Vinci, Entre 1503 et 1506 Huile sur panneau de bois de peuplier 77 × 53 cm Musée du Louvre, Paris La Joconde (ou Portrait de Mona Lisa) est un tableau de Léonard de Vinci, réalisé entre 1503 et 1506 d'une femme qui s'appelait à l'époque Mona Lisa del Giocondo.Huile sur [121] [129], In 1974, the painting was exhibited in Tokyo and Moscow. [85] [63], In 1977, a new insect infestation was discovered in the back of the panel as a result of crosspieces installed to keep the painting from warping. During the 20th century it was an object for mass reproduction, merchandising, lampooning and speculation, and was claimed to have been reproduced in "300 paintings and 2,000 advertisements". The unconstrained poplar panel warped freely with changes in humidity, and as a result, a crack developed near the top of the panel, extending down to the hairline of the figure. [47] According to Vasari, "after he had lingered over it four years, [he] left it unfinished". This explains the great precision of the listings. [82] Peruggia served six months in prison for the crime and was hailed for his patriotism in Italy. [133], In 2014, a France 24 article suggested that the painting could be sold to help ease the national debt, although it was noted that the Mona Lisa and other such art works were prohibited from being sold due to French heritage law, which states that "Collections held in museums that belong to public bodies are considered public property and cannot be otherwise. "[125], From December 1962 to March 1963, the French government lent it to the United States to be displayed in New York City and Washington, D.C.[126][127] It was shipped on the new ocean liner SS France. [45] Although the Louvre states that it was "doubtless painted between 1503 and 1506",[8] art historian Martin Kemp says that there are some difficulties in confirming the dates with certainty. [20], Peruggia was an Italian patriot who believed that Leonardo's painting should have been returned to an Italian museum. [8], The painting is probably of the Italian noblewoman Lisa Gherardini,[9] the wife of Francesco del Giocondo, and is in oil on a white Lombardy poplar panel. [14][15] It is believed by some that the Mona Lisa was begun in 1503 or 1504 in Florence. Il vit de contrats que les plus grands lui passent. analyse d'un tableau : la Joconde . bibliographie. La Joconde, la plus célèbre oeuvre de Léonard de Vinci Léonard de Vinci (1452 – 1519) commence ce portrait de Mona Lisa à son retour à Florence peu après la chute de la famille Sforza à Milan, ses anciens protecteurs. Image réduite : The lamp has a Colour Rendering Index up to 98, and minimizes infrared and ultraviolet radiation which could otherwise degrade the painting. ", "New proof said found for "original" Mona Lisa –", "Mona Lisa: A Comparative Evaluation of the Different Versions and Their Copies", Conservation Science in Cultural Heritage, "Computer Studies of the Isleworth and Louvre Mona Lisas", Scientific analyses conducted by the Center for Research and Restoration of the Museums of France (C2RMF), Madonna and Child with the Infant Saint John the Baptist, The Virgin and Child with Saint Anne and Saint John the Baptist, Museo Nazionale Scienza e Tecnologia Leonardo da Vinci (Milan), Land grant to Marduk-apla-iddina I by Meli-Shipak II, Statue of the Tiber river with Romulus and Remus, Vulcan Presenting Venus with Arms for Aeneas, The Attributes of Civilian and Military Music, The Attributes of Music, the Arts and the Sciences, The Lictors Bring to Brutus the Bodies of His Sons, Coresus Sacrificing Himself to Save Callirhoe, Bonaparte Visiting the Plague Victims of Jaffa, Don Pedro of Toledo Kissing Henry IV's Sword, Joan of Arc at the Coronation of Charles VII, Portrait of Madame Marcotte de Sainte-Marie, Francesca da Rimini and Paolo Malatesta Appraised by Dante and Virgil, Madonna and Child with Saint Peter and Saint Sebastian, Venus and the Three Graces Presenting Gifts to a Young Woman, A Young Man Being Introduced to the Seven Liberal Arts, Portrait of Alof de Wignacourt and his Page, The Doge on the Bucintoro near the Riva di Sant'Elena, Holy Family with the Family of St John the Baptist, Saints Bernardino of Siena and Louis of Toulouse, Madonna and Child with St John the Baptist and St Catherine of Alexandria, Madonna and Child with St Rose and St Catherine, Portrait of Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta, Portrait of Doña Isabel de Requesens y Enríquez de Cardona-Anglesola, Crucifixion with the Virgin Mary, St John and St Mary Magdalene, The Archangel Raphael Leaving Tobias' Family, Pendant portraits of Marten Soolmans and Oopjen Coppit, Ixion, King of the Lapiths, Deceived by Juno, Who He Wished to Seduce, The Virgin and Child Surrounded by the Holy Innocents, Francis I, Charles V and the Duchess of Étampes, Street Scene near the El Ghouri Mosque in Cairo, Christopher Columbus Before the Council of Salamanca,, Paintings of the Louvre by Italian artists, Articles containing Italian-language text, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from July 2019, Articles with dead external links from June 2016, Pages containing links to subscription-only content, Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox artwork with the material parameter, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2016, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown, Wikipedia articles with Joconde identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 31 December 2020, at 02:21. [68] A number of experts have argued that Leonardo made two versions (because of the uncertainty concerning its dating and commissioner, as well as its fate following Leonardo's death in 1519, and the difference of details in Raphael's sketch—which may be explained by the possibility that he made the sketch from memory). Pour donner un effet vaporeux à sa toile, le peintre a utilisé une technique nommée sfumato, consistant à appliquer plusieurs couches … [citation needed]. Aujourd'hui, 2008 la Joconde se trouve dans une salle rénovée au Louvre ou elle fait face au tableau de Véronèse " Les noces de Cana ". [106][107], The Mona Lisa began influencing contemporary Florentine painting even before its completion. Leonardo, Carmen Bambach, Rachel Stern, and Alison Manges (2003). [113] André Salmon subsequently described the painting as "The Mona Lisa of Cubism". Une chose est sûre, le peintre la conservera auprès de lui de son vivant, ne s’en séparant jamais, avant que François 1er ne l’acquière. L’œuvre est une peinture à l'huile sur un panneau de bois de peuplier, mesurant 77 × 53 cm. Dimensions 61,5 x 49,5 cm Impression : 48 x 33 cm. [18][20] In French, the title La Joconde has the same meaning. Léonard de Vinci… A detailed analysis in 1933 by Madame de Gironde revealed that earlier restorers had "acted with a great deal of restraint. Unfortunately, we cannot be absolutely certain that this portrait of Lisa del Giocondo is the painting of the Louvre."[15]. [90], In the early 21st century, French scientist Pascal Cotte hypothesized a hidden portrait underneath the surface of the painting. [62], The record of an October 1517 visit by Louis d'Aragon states that the Mona Lisa was executed for the deceased Giuliano de' Medici, Leonardo's steward at the Belvedere Palace between 1513 and 1516[65][66][b]—but this was likely an error. [84] The painting was protected by glass because a few years earlier a man who claimed to be in love with the painting had cut it with a razor blade and tried to steal it. [87][88] In both cases, the painting was undamaged. He analyzed the painting in the Louvre with reflective light technology beginning in 2004, and produced circumstantial evidence for his theory. Duchamp added an inscription, which when read out loud in French sounds like "Elle a chaud au cul" meaning: "she has a hot ass", implying the woman in the painting is in a state of sexual excitement and intended as a Freudian joke.

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