He also discovers his father's hunting knife and how it works. "Very sensual. 648 abonnés Cette version de Tarzan avec christophe Lambert dans le rôle principale , est débordant de tendresse, d'échanges entre le hommes et les animaux , et la nature elle même ! Mulan, S.O.S. Check out Greystoke, la légende de Tarzan / Greystoke: The Legend of Tarzan, Lord of the Apes reviews, ratings, browse wide selection of blu-ray, DVDs and shop online at Amazon.in He had this strange quality — somehow, because he was myopic, when he took his glasses off, he couldn’t really see properly so he would seem to look through you into the distance. Il est élevé parmi les primates. 21 films attendus en 2021 : Kaamelott, Fast and Furious 9, Mission Impossible 7... Netflix : quels sont les films à voir en janvier 2021 ? "Towne's script was brilliant", said Hudson. Jean agrees to return to England with his benefactor and reunite with his human family. Scripts are supposed to leave things up to interpretation, but people can misread things enormously, so sometimes it's just a matter of wanting to put on the screen what you had in mind. If I'm a good director I'll get the performance I want out of her. Christophe Lambert y est très touchant et crédible. The question is, does he have to go on to join society, or not? I had this awful vision of Greystoke going over budget and my whole reputation going down the drain. Greystoke: The Legend of Tarzan, Lord of the Apes is a 1984 adventure film directed by Hugh Hudson based on Edgar Rice Burroughs' novel Tarzan of the Apes (1912). When suddenly, they heard a growl, and the boy holding on his mother's back when the apes climb up the trees that a leopard and her cubs coming. CGU | He wound up in conflict with producer David Geffen and Warners that led to him selling his interest in Greystoke. "I've never worked with special effects and frankly they terrify me. La Comtesse accouche d'un petit garçon, John, avant de mourir de la malaria. ", The film was shot in Korup National Park in western Cameroon and in Scotland. During their visit, John is disturbed by the displays of stuffed animals. Jane helps John through his grief, and they become engaged. The objects fascinate the boy, and he takes them with him. Recrutement | Greystoke La Legende De Tarzan Vf , Film { Streaming Complet en VF Gratuit} - VF. "[16], Hudson said, "I think he [Puttnam] felt he had lost control because it was a studio picture set up by Semel and Daly and they wanted to deal directly with me, and he had this other film going, The Killing Fields, that he probably wanted to do more. ©AlloCiné, Retrouvez tous les horaires et infos de votre cinéma sur le numéro AlloCiné : 0 892 892 892 (0,34€/minute). " Personal Best was a box office flop. He also used Professor Roger Fouts of the Central Washington University, a primatologist who has successfully instructed chimpanzees in sign language for the deaf. Part of the $1 million that Towne received for Greystoke was put in escrow to be held against any money he went over budget on Personal Best. He tried to pull the arrows out, hurting her and carrying her as a strong young boy. Netflix : 5 films à ne pas rater à la rentrée 2021, Merlin l'enchanteur, le film qui en a tué un autre. Fou nominada a tres Oscars: millor actor secundari , al millor guió adaptat i millor maquillatge. According to Hudson, this was due to MacDowell's southern US accent, which he did not want for the film, and that she was not (at the time) a trained actor. "[17], Hudson tested four people as Tarzan: a Danish ballet dancer, Julian Sands, Viggo Mortensen and Christopher Lambert. Format: DVD. He details production and scripting failures which in his opinion contribute to the film's inaccuracy. Un navire anglais fait naufrage aux larges des côtes africaines . Up to that point he's very contented, but d'Arnot is the snake in the myth. He befriends a young mentally disabled worker on the estate and in his company relaxes into his natural ape-like behavior. For other cinematic depictions, see, Learn how and when to remove these template messages, "Greystoke: The Legend of Tarzan, Lord of the Apes", Learn how and when to remove this template message, Best Writing, Screenplay Based on Material from Another Medium, Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay, Academy of Science Fiction, Fantasy and Horror Films, "The Secrets Behind That Other Tarzan Movie — The One That Earned a Dog a Screenwriting Oscar Nomination", "Film locations for Greystoke, the Legend of Tarzan, Lord of the Apes (1984)", "1984 Yearly Box Office Results – Box Office Mojo", "Greystoke: The Legend of Tarzan, Lord of the Apes (1984) – Rotten Tomatoes", Greystoke: The Legend of Tarzan, Lord of the Apes, Tarzan: The Complete Russ Manning Newspaper Strips, Tarzan Alive: A Definitive Biography of Lord Greystoke, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Greystoke:_The_Legend_of_Tarzan,_Lord_of_the_Apes&oldid=998767236, Articles needing additional references from December 2015, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles needing rewrite from September 2016, Articles with multiple maintenance issues, Articles to be expanded from September 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2010, All articles that may contain original research, Articles that may contain original research from January 2016, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from December 2015, Articles needing additional references from September 2016, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Peter Elliott as Silverbeard, the dominant male of the, John Alexander – White Eyes, an aggressive male in the troop who has a strong hatred for John, Christopher Beck – Droopy Ears, a childhood friend of John who was unfortunately killed by a black panther, This page was last edited on 6 January 2021, at 23:13. They also represent the innocent side of ourselves, and we should be able to identify with them. Lire ses 978 critiques, Suivre son activité He was then adopted and raised by apes. "The camera loves her, and I just felt she was the right person", said Hudson. voici un film d'une rareté exceptionnel : le seul bon film de christophe lambert. Qui sommes-nous | Greystoke: The Legend Of Tarzan, Lord Of The Apes : Greystoke: The Legend Of Tarzan, Lord Of The Apes (1984) Composer(s): ... La-La Land Records LLLCD 1144 Country United States Format CD Release Date 21-Sep-2010 ... (Gardens Of Greystoke) Chanson De Matin (00:55) 11. Greystoke: The Legend of Tarzan, Lord of the Apes is a 1984 adventure film directed by Hugh Hudson based on Edgar Rice Burroughs' novel Tarzan of the Apes (1912). L'explorateur décide d'éduquer John avant de le ramener en Angleterre, le pays de ses ancêtres... Suivre son activité "[17], Hudon used Dr. Earl Hopper, the American author of Social Mobility, as an adviser on the film's psychological and social plausibility. Angel Alarcon. They recognise each other, and John releases Silverbeard and other caged animals. They become very close and one evening passionately make love in secret. Le père est tué par un grand singe. "Nobody can believe how mucked up financially you can be by these studio guys. No director or cast was attached but the producer said "I expect the Tarzan we'll cast won't be a muscle man. So Tarzan is what we might be, if we had lived like that: light, lithe, every muscle used, but not rippling like a Charles Atlas. Jane does not join him, but Phillippe expresses his hope that perhaps they may someday be reunited. "[3], Hudson was going to make the film with his Chariots producer, David Puttnam and Rick Baker signed to do apes. I'd have been learning on the job and that could have proved expensive and one of the things I rely on is people's belief that I can deliver good value for money. "It will be a serious period action adventure true to the characters and done in terms of contemporary mores." : Tarzan, amb molts dubtes de la seua identitat, tornarà a sa casa: la selva. Buy Greystoke, la l? "[2], Hudson had the script revived by Michael Austin. Look at other dictionaries: Greystoke — Greystoke, la légende de Tarzan Greystoke, la légende de Tarzan (Greystoke: The Legend of Tarzan, Lord of the Apes) est un film britannique réalisé par Hugh Hudson, sorti en 1984. He gives him the word, and from that point you could say he's lost. Les membres de notre rédaction vous indiquent les films à voir à la télévision.... Pour écrire un commentaire, identifiez-vous, très beau film avec une photographie magnifique….la meilleure adaptation de l'homme singe et de très loin...dommage que Lambert ait pas fait plus de films mythiques comme celui-ci….apres un nullissime chariots de feu hugh Hudson réalise un chef d'œuvre..A noter les débuts de la jolie andie macdowell. Highlander(le 1er de la trilogie) et Greystoke,les seuls bon films de Christophe Lambert, dommage que par la suite il est tombé si bas dans des films 'nanards'. "It won't be a caricature or a popularization", he said. It's about the loss of innocence and about the evolutionary urge. "[7] The film had a tentative budget of $6 million and a working title of Lord Greystoke. No en va guanyar cap. Sharon Fontaine-Ishpatao, Yamie Grégoire, Contact | Greystoke was the first Hollywood film to be shot in the Super Techniscope format. Several great houses in the UK were used for the Greystoke family seat:[19]. Tarzan is discovered and brought to Scotland, where he fails to adapt to civilization. Anthea Sylbert was appointed Warners executive in charge of the project. [22], This article is about the 1984 film. Greystoke: The Legend of Tarzan, Lord of the Apes Titre original: Greystoke: The Legend of Tarzan, Lord of the Apes ( Film ) Greystoke: The Legend of Tarzan, Lord of the Apes 30 March 1984. They spent nine months on it. Au XIXe siècle, un navire anglais fait naufrage aux larges de côtes africaines. Greystoke La Legende De Tarzan 1984 Zestream, Streaming complet vf Avec sous-titres anglais et français, greystoke la legende Regardez tout le film sans limitation, diffusez en streaming en qualité The boy throwing rocks that he wants to play. Et plat.Dommage. J'aurais du rester sur le souvenir un peu magique de mon enfance.Car le film a terriblement vieilli. The Legend of Tarzan is a 2016 adventure film directed by David Yates and distributed by Warner Bros. Pictures. 995 abonnés The boy learns to growl at the sleepy gorilla Droopy Ears to wake him up that he makes some friends. Warners cut out 25 minutes from the jungle footage of Tarzan growing up. Stanley Canter [who's credited as producer alongside Hudson] had a deal with Warners and the Edgar Rice Burroughs estate, but he wasn’t involved in the making of the film. greystoke " très beau film de Hugh Hudson . Wonder Woman : Zack Snyder révèle ses plans d'origine pour Diana Prince. "[14], A new director became attached to the project – Hugh Hudson whose debut feature Chariots of Fire had been a surprise box office hit. The Earl still grieves the loss of his son and daughter-in-law years earlier but is very happy to have his grandson home. At age 12, the boy discovers the tree-house in which he lived as a baby with his real mother and father. HD, Greystoke, la légende de Tarzan Bande-annonce VO. Des films complètement naze on des meilleures notes que ce film. Oh, no, come on—Jane Goodall, Shadow of Man. Jane meanwhile teaches John more English, French, and social skills. See reviews & details on a wide … The dialogue of Andie MacDowell, who played Jane, was dubbed in post-production by Glenn Close. The boy learns how to pee which he is peeing on White Eyes. It's about the battle of nature and nurture, nature and culture – a dilemma, a terrible dichotomy in us all. "It was only half finished and overlong but all the jungle stuff was there and it was fascinating. "I was sorry to lose those scenes", said Hudson. greystoke la lÉgende de tarzan film avec christophe lambert en dvd zone 2 - $15.35. But a cab driver in New York who doesn't get tipped gets more sympathy than any Hollywood writer." Hudson said it came down to Lambert and Mortensen. Ce métrage doit beaucoup à Christophe Lambert. John, Lord Clayton, the heir to the 6th Earldom of Greystoke, and his pregnant wife Alice are shipwrecked on the African coast. First in a mini-series of caches linked to the legend of “Tarzan” on a circular walk of 3.5km Sir Ralph Richardson, who played The 6th Earl of Greystoke, died shortly after filming ended, and he received a posthumous Oscar nomination for Best Supporting Actor. D'Arnot deduces that this man is the son of the late Lord John and Lady Alice of Greystoke and calls the man "Jean". It also utilized a number of corrective ideas first put forth by science fiction author Philip José Farmer in his mock-biography Tarzan Alive,[citation needed] most notably Farmer's explanation of how the speech-deprived ape-man was later able to acquire language by showing Tarzan to be a natural mimic. Hier soir à la télé : Greystoke, la légende de Tarzan : vous avez aimé ? Greystoke 2,9. "[6], In September 1975 a report said the film would be made the following year. "[17] In preparation for the movie, Christopher Lambert trained with real apes and said " I wasn't afraid of them, but you must show them respect. Droopy Ears showed the boy and swing on the water to make a splash with his hand and the boy uses his hand to make a splash too and digging to pick up mud to cover his face. At age five, the boy learns how to swing a vine and is still trying to fit in with his ape family, then he fell into the mud and learns how to whistle. Données Personnelles | Les meilleurs films de l'année 1984, John is treated as a novelty by the local social set, and some of his behaviour is seen as threatening and savage. Descubierto por el Capitán D’Arnot, el joven Tarzán es llevado a Inglaterra, presentado a su familia y educado de acuerdo con su rango. "[5], Towne later recalled, "I called up a friend and said, "Let's do it." "After looking into it carefully I felt it needed a more experienced producer", he said. Mon préférée film sur Tarzan . The story asks you to consider how society lives, halfway between the apes and the angels, aspiring to go up yet coming from down there. Amazon.ca - Buy Greystoke: La Légende De Tarzan: Seigneur Des Singes - Greystoke: The Legend of Tarzan Lord of the Apes (English/French) 1983 (Widescreen) Régie au Québec at a low price; free shipping on qualified orders. She was badly wounded and came to her son at the treehouse when he stopped looking at the human things. Publicité | [2] The young Jane featured at the beginning of the film is portrayed as American, which is consistent with Burroughs' story. Politique de cookies | And all that, all that meaning, is dressed up in a terrific 'Boys Own' story, a marvelously exciting adventure yarn. J'ai voulu le revoir, et c'était une erreur. 4.6 out of 5 stars 805 ratings. [10], Towne made his directorial debut on another project he had written, Personal Best. John, devastated, yells to the crowd, "He was my father!". Greystoke: The Legend of Tarzan, Lord of the Apes is a reverent retelling of the Edgar Rice Burroughs original, with a 1980s-sensibilities slant. D'Arnot discovers that the man is a natural mimic and teaches him to speak rudimentary English. However filming Personal Best proved extremely difficult – Towne had to deal with an actors strike and a budget blow out. White Eyes begin to chase and he stops to let the boy back inside the treehouse. Tarzan - Greystoke Castle. At his passing, John displays similar emotions and a lack of understanding about death as he did in Africa following the death of Kala. Greystoke, la lgende de Tarzan Argentina: Greystoke, la leyenda de Tarzn, el rey de los monos: Brazil: Greystoke - A Lenda de Tarzan, o Rei da Selva: Brazil (alternative spelling) Greystoke, la lgende de Tarzan - film 1983 - AlloCin Greystoke, la lgende de Tarzan Au XIXe sicle, un navire anglais fait naufrage aux larges de ctes africaines. Soon after, a family of apes stumble across the house and in the ensuing panic, both parents are killed. Fou nominada a tres Oscars: millor actor secundari (Ralph Richardson, nominat a títol pòstum), al millor guió adaptat i millor maquillatge. The black panther pulls dead Droopy Ears for his meal. Greystoke: The Legend of Tarzan, Lord of the Apes (original title) PG | 2h 23min | Adventure, Drama | 30 March 1984 (USA) A missing heir of respected Scottish family, raised in African jungles by animals, finally returns to his estate only to realize that difference between the … Une bonne et captivante version du mythe du célèbre homme-singe, plutôt sombre, mais plus humaine et assez complète ! [8], Towne said working on the script is what made him want to direct. Greystoke went on to receive three Oscar nominations at the 57th Academy Awards ceremony for Best Actor in a Supporting Role for Richardson, Best Writing, Screenplay Based on Material from Another Medium, and Best Makeup. Artiste raillé le plus souvent pour des films médiocres et des prestations très limites, il livre dans Greystoke à mon sens son meilleur. There's not enough nature in society, and maybe not enough society in nature. Le comte et la comtesse greystoke les deux seul survivant du naufrage doivent alors survivre seul dans une jungle hostile . Lord Greystoke enjoys renewed vigour at the return of his grandson and, reminiscing about his childhood game of using a silver tray as a toboggan on a flight of stairs in the grand house, decides to relive the old pastime. "[9], By October 1977 Towne was attached as director as well as writer. "I just felt that Christopher was the right person. Greystoke La Legende De Tarzan 1984 Zestream. "[17], Towne had done tests involving real apes but Hudson felt this was too difficult and decided to use humans in ape costumes. ... John Clayton, l'hereu de la família Greystoke, es troba recent nascut a la selva d'Àfrica arran del naufragi del vaixell on anava la seva mare embarassada i el pare. Amazon Prime Video : les films et séries à voir en janvier 2021 : American Gods, Songbird, Star Trek... Greystoke - A Lenda de Tarzan, O Rei da Selva, Greystoke - Die Legende von Tarzan, Herr der Affen, Greystoke, la leyenda de Tarzán, el rey de los monos, Lumière 2018 : Christophe Lambert et Hugh Hudson se remémorent Greystoke, la légende de Tarzan. Très très bon film!Je l'ai adoré étant petit ! He intended Personal Best to be a "trial run" for Greystoke. The thing is about that sort of balance, which is so tender, so difficult to achieve, yet so essential to all of us. ?gende de Tarzan / Greystoke: The Legend of Tarzan, Lord of the Apes from Amazon's Movies Store. [17], "Tarzan is everyman, and he is also everyman's idealized projection of himself", said Hudson. He sees himself in a mirror and recognizes the physical differences between himself and the rest of his ape family. Myriam Verreault, avec Déjà, honnêtement, l’ambiance est bien retransmise, on se croirait un peu dans « Gorilles dans la brume » et les costumes de grands singes, bien qu’un peu dépassés surtout si on les compare à ceux de la Planète des Singes ... En complément des films diffusés à la télévision, la rédaction d'Allociné vous aide à compléter votre cinéphilie en vous... Vous ne savez pas quoi regarder ce soir ? "I suddenly realized that I'd written a bunch of descriptions without much dialogue to go along with it", he said. 319 abonnés They reach a woodland park, where Silverbeard is fatally shot. He displays eccentric behaviour and often confuses John with John's father. Find helpful customer reviews and review ratings for Greystoke, la légende de Tarzan / Greystoke: The Legend of Tarzan, Lord of the Apes at Amazon.com. Greystoke, la légende de Tarzan est un film réalisé par Hugh Hudson avec Christophe Lambert, Andie MacDowell. C'est abuser quand même. [13], In 2010 Towne said losing Greystoke was "then, is now, and always will be the biggest creative regret of my life. Lire ses 4 025 critiques, Suivre son activité In a departure from most previous Tarzan films, Greystoke returned to Burroughs' original novel for many elements of its plot. A female ape takes the tiny boy as a replacement for her own dead infant, and raises him as her son. Meilleurs films Aventure en 1984. de One female of the group, Kala, who is carrying her dead infant, hears the cries of the infant human in his crib. Aujourd'hui il sonne souvent faux, paraît ringard dans sa mise en scène, dans le traitement de son thème. Ex. 4,3 WTF! Fantômes : L'Héritage, Togo. Préférences cookies | Greystoke, la légende de Tarzan [DVD] [1984] Christopher Lambert (Actor), Andie MacDowell (Actor), Hugh Hudson (Director, Producer) & Rated: Unrated. "It's a very heavy story", said Towne. un film superbe avec que christophe lambert opte pour des roles peu plaisants. Greystoke: The Legend of Tarzan soundtrack from 1965-1990, composed by John Scott. He is disgusted by their boorish nature and love of "blood and sport". We'd all love to have that body, be wild, swing in the trees, and get the ideal woman, who is Jane. "[2], Andie MacDowell made her film debut as Jane. la Tarzan of the apes d'Edgar Rice Burroughs. It explains how Tarzan, grandson of the Scottish Earl of Greystoke (Lord Clayton), was born to parents who were shipwrecked and died in Africa. Droopy Ears and the boy became best friends and play together. Le Comte et la Comtesse Greystoke doivent alors survivre dans une jungle hostile. The film was dedicated to his memory. Robert Towne signed to write the script. He cried as he needed to protect the ape clan. [21], Film review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes reported an approval rating of 73%, based on 15 reviews, with a rating average of 5.96/10. A shipping disaster in the 19th Century has stranded a man and woman in the wilds of Africa. John builds a home in the trees, and Alice gives birth to a son. Scripts have air in them. A band of natives attacks the party, killing everyone except Phillippe, who is injured and conceals himself in the trees. Unable to assimilate to the human society that he views as cruel, John decides to return to Africa and reunite with his ape family. When a black panther attacks, he learns how to swim to evade it while the rest of the apes flees, and another ape is killed. While John is grieving her, the tree house is visited by curious apes, one of whom kills him. Soon after, a family of apes stumble across the house and in the ensuing panic, both parents are killed. John inherits the title Earl of Greystoke. "We all aspire to be how he is, morally and physically. "I'd reached the age where I realized that I couldn't necessarily just turn that over to a director and say "Don't fuck it up." And my friend said "You’re right, screw it, let's do it". Les services AlloCiné | 3,99 € L'enfant John est alors recueilli par une guenon qui a perdu son ... Greystoke est un très bon film, l’adaptation sans doute la plus réaliste du mythe de Tarzan. He crashes at the foot of the stairs and slowly dies, apparently from a head injury, in the arms of his grandson. greystoke la lÉgende de tarzan film avec christophe lambert dvd zone 2 224256319526 "But you can't have everything. "They are complete innocents, and therefore somebody new is more acceptable to the audience than a face you know. On vous recommande... Dimanche soir à la télé : on mate "Prête-moi ta main" et "Greystoke". Assez rapidement Le comte et la contesse meurt . La contesse accouche d'un petit garçon nommer jonh . Il est même beaucoup plus convaincant que dans Highlander. for sale! John returns to the world he understands. At age one, the boy learns gorilla talk and learns how to walk. [2], Hudson wanted to cast unknowns as Tarzan and Jane. [2], Hudson said the film was "about Adam and Eve, the Garden of Eden. Les meilleurs films Aventure, né par accident , dû au naufrage de ses parents, dans la jungle , nourrit par les animaux , éduqué par eux , ce fils de noblesse anglaise et futur comte de Greystocke , n'arrive qu'avec beaucoup de difficultés et de déception à s'adapter au … A shipping disaster in the 19th Century has stranded a man and woman in the wilds of Africa. Amazon.ca - Buy Greystoke : La Legende De Tarzan at a low price; free shipping on qualified orders. The young man finds Phillippe and nurses him back to health. Read honest and … [original research?] Passant par des émotions très variées, il les restitue avec talent et parvient à donner corps à ... Greystoke, la légende de Tarzan seigneur des singes : Un film tout simplement beau qui est fort bien raconté, réalisé et interprété donc c’est que du bon. Greystoke: La leyenda de Tarzán El heredero de la familia Greystoke, John Clayton, huérfano a los pocos meses de nacer, es adoptado por una tribu de simios, entre los que vive durante años. They are pursued by police and museum officials. A nous de le remonter. Dire que c'est le meilleur film avec Christophe Lambert Ever !!!! Cette collision des mondes "sauvage" et "civilisé" est l'extraordinaire épopée de Tarzan, la chronique et les livres populaires d'Edgar Rice Burroughs. la Tarzan of the apes d'Edgar Rice Burroughs. Lire ses 1 776 critiques. One day his mother is eating ants, the apes alert that a native hunting party has come and started to kill her. He tried to save her life before she died. La première dans une mini-série de caches liée à la légende de "Tarzan" sur une promenade circulaire de 3,5km. It is based on Edgar Rice Burroughs' fictional character.The film was written by Adam Cozad and Craig Brewer and stars Alexander Skarsgård as Tarzan, as well as Samuel L. Jackson, Margot Robbie, Djimon Hounsou, Jim Broadbent, and Christoph Waltz in supporting roles. A native hunting party has come and he kills one of them in revenge. This movie, about female athletes, came out of Towne's interest in human movement, which arose from his research into Greystoke. Un enfant élevé jusqu'à l'âge adulte parmi les singes sauvages, guidé par son intelligence et la loi de la jungle, revient dans la société pour réclamer son héritage d'humanité et de privilèges. The lady is pregnant, and gives birth to a son in their tree house. Lire ses 2 232 critiques, Suivre son activité Sommaire 1 Synopsis 2 Fiche technique 3 Distribution … Wikipédia en Français. [15], Puttnam eventually pulled out and went off to produce Local Hero instead. He discovers many live, caged apes from Africa, including his adoptive father, Silverbeard. He finds a wooden block, with pictures of both a boy and a chimpanzee painted on it. She adopts the boy and raises him as a member of the Mangani. I said yes at once. But then, a black panther has come while waiting to hunt. Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible orders. Basically it's about Tarzan and his foster mother. Greystoke: The Legend of Tarzan, Lord of the Apes is a 1984 British film directed by Hugh Hudson and based on Edgar Rice Burroughs' novel Tarzan of the Apes (1912).